In the context of the “Nelson Mandela Decade for Peace” (2019-2028), established by the United Nations, it is appropriate to return to one of the most recurrent issues within the international community over the past four decades. This is the perennial question of the reform of the United Nations Security Council, an essential institution for international peace and security.

Indeed, in order to achieve a genuine reform of the Security Council that is legitimate, optimal, efficient and effective, it is essential to redefine the very basis of this recurrent debate and to better situate the issues related to it. Such an exercise requires an objective and depoliticized diagnosis, on the one hand, and an enlightenment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, on the other.

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